The oldest fossils of remarkable aquatic reptiles discovered in the Arctic

The oldest fossils of remarkable aquatic reptiles discovered in the Arctic

Scientists have recently discovered the oldest known fossils of an extinct marine reptile, the ichthyosaur, in the remote Arctic region. The finding was published in the scientific journal Nature on March 15, 2023. The discovery sheds new light on the evolution of these remarkable creatures that once ruled the oceans during the Mesozoic Era, about 250 to 90 million years ago.

The team of Swedish and Norwegian paleontologists found the fossils on a remote island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, about 900 km from the North Pole. The fossils belonged to two distinct species of ichthyosaurs, named Thalassodraco and Arcticophis, that lived during the Early Jurassic Period, about 200 million years ago.

The fossils were well-preserved, with some of the bones still attached to each other, providing valuable insights into the anatomy and evolutionary history of ichthyosaurs. Ichthyosaurs were a group of marine reptiles that evolved from terrestrial reptiles, similar to today’s lizards and snakes, but adapted to life in the water. They were highly successful and diverse, with some species reaching lengths of up to 20 meters.

The Arctic fossils are significant because they are the oldest known ichthyosaur remains, and they represent the first evidence of ichthyosaurs living in the high Arctic region. The discovery challenges previous assumptions that ichthyosaurs were restricted to warmer latitudes and suggests that these reptiles were highly adaptable to different environments.

The researchers also used advanced imaging techniques to examine the fossils in detail and reconstruct the anatomy of the ichthyosaurs. They found that the two species had different body shapes and likely had different feeding strategies. 

Thalassodraco had a long snout and slender body, similar to a modern-day swordfish, and was probably a fast swimmer that hunted small fish and squid. Arcticophis, on the other hand, had a shorter snout.

and sturdier body, suggesting that it may have been a slower swimmer that fed on larger prey.

The discovery of these ancient fossils highlights the importance of the Arctic region for understanding the evolution of life on Earth. The Arctic was once a warmer and more hospitable environment, home to a diverse array of creatures, including dinosaurs, marine reptiles, and early mammals. Today, the Arctic is rapidly changing due to climate change, with melting sea ice and rising temperatures threatening the region’s unique ecosystems and wildlife.


The discovery of the oldest known ichthyosaur fossils in the Arctic is a remarkable feat of scientific exploration and provides new insights into the evolution and adaptation of these ancient marine reptiles. The finding highlights the importance of preserving and studying the Arctic region, which holds valuable clues to the history and future of our planet.

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